Mary C. Moran is the principal of MCM Planned Giving Services in Boston.
Babe Ruth's biographer, the sports writer Leigh Montville, has written that the famous baseball player's early years, spent mostly in an orphanage, are covered in a fog “that settles over everything and will not leave.”1
This description also fits the private foundation set up in Ruth's name 15 months before he died at age 53 in August of 1948.
Sixty years later, the Babe Ruth Foundation is almost completely forgotten. It doesn't seem to have a dime. The few remaining records of it are tucked away in a few files in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum archives in Cooperstown, N.Y., the New York Surrogate Court and the Internal Revenue Service.
These documents, although incomplete, tell a cautionary tale for all foundations that lack sound financial plans and whose advisors are unwilling to raise funds. It's also a good story for anyone interested in Babe Ruth, as so many still are. After all, many still think of the man born as George Herman Ruth, Jr. and nicknamed “The Babe” as the greatest baseball player of all time for all that he accomplished playing in the major league from 1914 to 1935. Indeed, many credit Ruth's dynamic playing with having saved baseball by diverting the nation's attention away from the “Black Sox” gambling scandal of 1919.2 Before him, the Yankees had never won a title; during his reign, the team won seven pennants and four World Series. When he retired, Ruth held 54 major league records.
At that time, there wasn't a farewell ceremony in New York's Yankee Stadium nor was his number retired,3 because he'd allowed himself to be traded to the Boston Braves, and later joined the Brooklyn Dodgers, in hopes of becoming a major league manager. Unfortunately, both teams were interested in him only as a player, as a draw for gate receipts.
Although Ruth had sufficient savings to afford a comfortable retirement, he yearned to be a major league manager. By early 1946, he was willing to settle for managing a minor league team and approached the Yankees about their farm team in Newark, N.J. Yankee President Larry MacPhail sent a letter recommending that Ruth instead become involved with promoting sandlot baseball in New York City.4 According to his wife Claire, Ruth read the letter, went into the kitchen, and cried; she believed that as he wept, he began to die.5
Indeed, on Nov. 26, 1946, Ruth entered New York City's French Hospital in a wheelchair and didn't leave for nearly three months. An operation on Jan. 5, 1947, revealed that he had cancer.
In early 1947, major league baseball showed some remorse. Baseball Commissioner Albert “Happy” Chandler visited Ruth in the hospital; Ruth pointed to his emaciated arms and they both wept. Chandler told him “Babe, you are Mr. Baseball.”6 Soon, Chandler was announcing that “[i]n order that fans, players and the management of the game might have an opportunity to unite in a salute and join in a prayer for [Ruth's]s early recovery, Sunday, April 27 has been designated ‘Babe Ruth day.’ Appropriate ceremonies will be held at every major league game. A nation-wide system will carry a special broadcast.”
But, Chandler added, “there will be no collection — no advance in prices at the parks. This is not a fundraising event. It is an expression of affection to one who has contributed so much to our national sport — baseball.”7
By all accounts, the day was a resounding success. The New York Times enthused that Yankee Stadium gave Ruth “the greatest ovation in the history of the national pastime.”8 And from that day came the idea of establishing a charitable foundation in Ruth's honor. Ruth's attorney, Melvyn G. Lowenstein, drew up the requisite documents. The Babe Ruth Foundation's first fundraising event was in the fall of 1947 when the Yankees held an old-timers day. It generated $25,534.15 for the foundation (when adjusted for inflation, that'd be roughly $246,871.35 in 2009).9
As it turned out, this event was one of the foundation's most successful — and few — fundraising efforts. Serious missteps squandered the opportunity to marshal Babe Ruth's renown for charity. What came to pass is still good: To this day, children are being helped through baseball and in Ruth's name. Still, the money being dedicated is modest. It's certainly a far cry from the grand hopes with which the Babe Ruth Foundation began. And it's certainly less than far less popular sports figures managed to give back to society.
How did this happen?
Strike One: Undefined Purpose
The first problem was that the articles of incorporation for the Babe Ruth Foundation afforded the directors great discretion — but little real direction. They were instructed to apply the income and as much of the principal as deemed necessary to support “charitable, educational, religious, scientific, literary, artistic, benevolent, philanthropic, humanitarian and eleemosynary uses, causes, undertakings, enterprises and projects of every kind, nature and description whatsoever.”10
The articles then listed, without limiting or defining the general purposes, a broad range of suggested uses of the foundation — including developing good character through the promotion of sports and athletics; providing housing for youths; and supporting scholarships, scientific research, hospitals and clinics.
Ruth and his attorney publicly stated that the foundation's focus was to help underprivileged boys.11 Seven days before his death, Ruth executed his last will. He had a net estate of $360,811 (adjusted for inflation, that'd be about $3.2 million in 2009 dollars).
A trust fund established in 1927 was left at his death to his wife and two daughters. His residuary estate of $58,496.62 ($523,539.89 in 2009 dollars) funded a trust to benefit his immediate family and the Babe Ruth Foundation.12
The terms of the trust provided income for life to his wife, Claire. At her death, 90 percent of the residuary was to be distributed equally between the two daughters. The remaining 10 percent of the residuary was to go to the Babe Ruth Foundation. But of course, Ruth died young and his widow would live for another 28 years, so it was a long time before the foundation would receive its share.
The executors of Ruth's estate, Melvyn G. Lowenstein and J. Paul Carey II, were given the discretion to distribute Ruth baseball memorabilia, which they donated to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
His will did not specifically bequeath any royalty or license fees. The executors initiated a surrogate court proceeding to obtain clarification of the proper allocation between income and principal of revenues received by the Ruth estate under royalty and license agreements. A 1950 voluntary settlement by Claire Ruth, as income beneficiary of the testamentary trust with the residuary beneficiaries — her daughters and the directors of the Babe Ruth Foundation — refers to royalty and license agreements made by Ruth during his life and by his executors after his death.13 The voluntary settlement doesn't contemplate Claire Ruth entering into any licensing agreements.
Interestingly, Ruth's will describes the Babe Ruth Foundation as being “dedicated to the interests of the kids of America.”14 There's no reference to it being for underprivileged boys. But, given Ruth's public statements, it's understandable that biographers and reporters later would write that the foundation's mission was to support underprivileged children,15 children in need,16 or impoverished children.17
It's more difficult to understand why one of the foundation directors, American League President William Harridge, also was unclear about the foundation's purpose. Indeed, at one point, he incorrectly commented that the foundation was to provide for undernourished children.18
One explanation for the confusion is that while all of the directors may have sincerely wanted to leverage Ruth's name for charity in general, they had yet to focus on a particular charitable cause. Two directors and long-time friends of Ruth, Emory Perry and J. Paul Carey, also seemed to want to remedy what they saw as previous slights by baseball towards Ruth. A charitable foundation in his name was a wonderful way to both ensure that Ruth's name was never forgotten and also benefit charities.
An early foundation press release is revealing: It states that, while the program “has not yet been fully worked out,” the directors were establishing the foundation “as a mark of respect and affection they and the general public feel toward the great baseball player.”19 During the next several years, a specific charitable purpose was never established; the foundation's focus wandered from awarding high school sportsmanship prizes, combating juvenile delinquency through scholarships, fighting cancer to helping orphanages. An undetermined purpose hurt fundraising for a foundation left to rely on public support.
Although the directors weren't committed to a particular charitable cause, they were commendably vigilant that none of the foundation's resources be wasted in administration or fundraising. A review of the foundation's files held by the Baseball Hall of Fame reveals that the directors of the Babe Ruth Foundation were guided by the principal that all money raised should be used solely for charitable purposes.
The foundation's officers began their work with great enthusiasm. Foundation director Emory Perry said he intended the foundation to be “one of the greatest forces for helping youngsters that we now have in this country.”20 This seemed a reasonable expectation. Within a month of Ruth's death, the foundation received a major gift of $100,000 from Sam Briskin, chairman of the Revere Camera Company, to establish a cancer fund.
From its beginning, the directors saw the foundation as primarily a grantmaker to other organizations more qualified in carrying out the specific charitable purpose. They had no interest in duplicating work of more experienced organizations.21 Accordingly, they entered a partnership with the American Cancer Society, which was willing to handle the administration of Briskin's $100,000 gift (which would be nearly $1 million in 2009 dollars).
Executive Director Shelby Harrison researched and wrote a 53-page report on the foundation's possible uses and purposes. He was ambitious, listing nearly 40 institutions with which the foundation could work and recommending 15 projects based on annual budgets ranging from $75,000 to $400,000 (anywhere from $.5 million to $3.5 million in 2009).22 For this report, he charged $4,331.74, the cost of which was born equally by the American League and the National League.
Problem is, Harrison's extensive report did not address, let alone provide a plan for, how those funds might be raised. In hindsight, this was a serious error. After Briskin's gift, the foundation did not receive any other sizeable donations. In fact, in the month after Ruth's death, 43 individual donors contributed a total of $4,024 (about $36,000 in 2009). Although several gifts were in the $250 to $500 range, nearly half of the gifts were $10 or less. A more savvy executive director or board might have seen the writing on the wall.
One of the foundation's first efforts, adopted from Harrison's recommendations, was to promote better sportsmanship by offering merit awards to be known as “Babe Ruth Sportsmanship Prizes” in every public and private high school and in institutions for delinquent or dependent children.23 This endeavor met with early success. Within two years, in partnership with the National Association of Secondary School Principals and the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Babe Ruth Sportsmanship Awards were made in more than 2,000 high schools in 39 states.24 The administration was handled by the other organizations, so presumably all that was required of the Babe Ruth Foundation was the use of Ruth's name.
Strike Two: The League Says ‘No’
Directors Carey and Perry, as Ruth's longtime personal friends, were deeply committed to the foundation's success. Unfortunately, they wasted a lot of time and energy on a futile quest: getting major league baseball to establish an annual Babe Ruth Day, in which baseball teams would contribute the day's revenue to the Ruth foundation. They failed to convince three other foundation directors, Baseball Commissioner Chandler, American League President William Harridge, and National League President Ford Frick.
Harridge was especially adamant that official baseball not be actively involved in fundraising for Ruth's foundation and worked to ensure it did not happen. His stated reason was that major league baseball was frequently asked to play on behalf of various charities and that it was difficult to select one and refuse others.25 Just a month after Ruth's death, when the foundation received Briskin's $100,000 donation, the American Cancer Society readily agreed to handle administration of the gift. Harridge took this opportunity to suggest that the three baseball executives resign from the Ruth foundation's board. He wrote the commissioner's office and the league's attorney saying it would be proper and smart to resign because baseball would not be taking an active part in the foundation that had been taken over by the American Cancer Society.26 He was not sufficiently persuasive and the three remained foundation directors.
Unaware of Harridge's letter to the league's attorney confiding, “I doubt that baseball will do very much for the Babe Ruth Foundation,”27 Carey and Perry continued for several years to press for an annual, official Babe Ruth Day. They even issued various press releases indicating that such a day was in the offing.
To make the day more palatable to the baseball executives, Carey volunteered that if the Baseball Welfare Fund would change its name to the Babe Ruth Welfare Fund, the foundation would turn over its assets or merge with the Baseball Welfare Fund.28 It never happened.
For several years, Carey and Perry didn't approach any other major donors, so focused were they on receiving support from major league baseball. Valuable momentum was lost.
Strike Three: Ineffective Appeals
Ruth's foundation once described its origins as being “in response to a spontaneous determination on the part of the American people.”29 Purportedly, Ruth hoped that “it would attract money of itself.”30 Apparently, the foundation initially expected many members of the public to participate. The foundation's articles of incorporation were formed under membership corporate law; the bylaws provided non-voting membership to individuals donating $2 or more. A publicity photo of the largest single gift to the foundation shows Briskin posing with a 13-year-old boy who was donating 10 cents, seeming to indicate that, no matter the amount of the gift, all donors were of equal value.
If the foundation directors were basing their fundraising hopes on many small gifts by schoolchildren and other members of the public, success would depend on having a well-run fundraising infrastructure. But, despite many suggested fundraising schemes, the directors declined to plunge into direct fundraising for fear the money would go to overhead costs rather than children.31 By default, they had to rely on other individuals and organizations to organize fundraising events.
Some of those events included the 1948 movie premiere of “The Babe Ruth Story” and five benefit games by the All-American Girls Baseball League.32 The proceeds from these events were disappointing. The movie premiere yielded $6,000 and the All-American Girls Baseball League games resulted in $2,000. There was also a 1949 “Night of Champions” involving the Yankees, Giants and Dodgers to benefit the Babe Ruth Foundation, the New York Heart Fund, and the Lou Gehrig Memorial Fund.33 The next day's New York Times article reported an attendance of 26,120 but did not mention the amount raised.34
The foundation directors and the executive director seemed to hope that lending Ruth's name to other established non-profit organizations would eliminate a need for their own fundraising. In addition to the American Cancer Society, the directors showed interest in partnering with The Children's Village, in Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., which was considered by some to be the “Boys town of the East.” The foundation's most successful fundraising event was a telethon to benefit these two organizations. Held on the third anniversary of Ruth's death, a two and a half hour telethon on the DuMont Television Network featuring a baseball quiz show whose panel of judges included Casey Stengel of the Yankees, Charlie Dressen of the Dodgers and Leo Durocher of the Giants, and raised a total of $203,504 in pledges (which would be $1,688,245 in 2009).35
Fog Settles In
At some point in the 1950s, the foundation effectively became dormant. There's nothing in the Baseball Hall of Fame archives on the foundation after 1951 nor are there any more New York Times articles about foundation fundraisers.
Of course after Claire's death in 1976, the remainder from the testamentary trust went to the foundation. It totaled about $13,000; it is unclear what happened to this money. The IRS' archives for the Form 990s filed by the foundation only go back as far as 1997, at which time the fair market value of the foundation's assets was $898. As recently as 2007, the foundation filed IRS Form 990 and listed no assets.
Although the foundation directors apparently became discouraged,36 Ruth's widow was determined to preserve her husband's legacy. In 1954, she gave permission to a baseball league for children aged 13-to-15 based in Hamilton Township, N.J. (which is about 60 miles outside of New York City) to rename itself the Babe Ruth League, Inc.37 Presumably, Ruth's executors also gave permission to the renaming, as they were the ones who had the legal right to license Ruth's name.38
The Babe Ruth League is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization, which, through its baseball and softball programs, today serves more one million children ages four through 18. According to a lawsuit brought by the two daughters, the League and the marketing firm CMG Worldwide, the League had been granted a license to use the Babe Ruth trademark to promote the league and to sell products, which it had done since 1955.39 The exact relationship between the Babe Ruth League and the Babe Ruth Foundation is unclear. These days, the league president and chief executive officer, Steven Tellefsen, is also an officer of the foundation as is the league's executive vice-president and chief financial officer, Rosemary Schoellkopf. They did not respond to questions about the terms of the license and who'd granted it.
After Claire's death, the foundation (as a residuary beneficiary) is entitled to 10 percent of any royalties made with Babe Ruth's name. But it is the league that is receiving a percentage of the royalties, along with Ruth family members.
It seems that some licensing agreement has been worked out. But the terms of the license, including who granted it, are not publicly available. Tellefsen and Schoellkopf have declined to respond to repeated phone calls and emails requesting clarification.
Also unclear is a 1984 marketing agreement between Ruth's daughters, the Babe Ruth League and CMG Worldwide, a firm based in Indianapolis that bills itself as “the worldwide leader in intellectual property rights management.”
Under this agreement, a percentage of the royalty fees are paid directly to the Babe Ruth League. Mark Roesker, president of CMG Worldwide, also declined to comment for this article. But in a 1995 interview with reporter Jeffrey Marx for Sports Illustrated,40 Roesker indicated that CMG Worldwide was taking a 60 percent cut of Babe Ruth royalties before distributing the remainder to family members and the Babe Ruth League. This article also quotes Ruth's daughter, Julia Stevens, as saying that by 1993, the amount that she was receiving was in the six figures. Presumably, then, the Babe Ruth League's take was a mid-five figure amount.
Fog envelops Babe Ruth's legacy as it did his childhood years. In Claire Ruth's 1959 autobiography, she claimed that 10 percent of the estate's annual income went to the Babe Ruth Foundation.41 But of course she knew that the foundation had only a future interest in the trust.42
There's no need for this mythologizing. Ruth died at the relatively young age of 53. It's understandable that the needs of his immediate family took priority.
Still, it's interesting to compare what wasn't accomplished in Babe Ruth's name and what has been accomplished in the name of other sports figures from his era.
Ruth rose to prominence when “Shoeless” Joe Jackson was being banned from baseball in the fallout from the “Black Sox” scandal. Jackson's wife survived him and, childless, bequeathed their entire estate of about $60,000 in 1959 to the American Heart Society and the American Cancer Society.43
Meanwhile, the legendary baseball player Ty Cobb, although generally not well-liked either on or off the field, established a foundation in 1953 with 250 shares of Coca-Cola stock to award college scholarships.44 He died eight years later. A multi-millionaire, he left 25 percent of his estate to his foundation.45 In the last 50 years, it has given nearly $10 million to more than 6,800 residents of his home state, Georgia.46
But one of the greatest “sports and charity” success stories from Ruth's era is that of Damon Runyon, the famous sports and short-story writer. After Runyon died in 1946, his friends established a cancer research fund. Runyon's foundation had two key ingredients that the Ruth Foundation lacked: a clear purpose and trustees willing to fundraise. Radio commentator Walter Winchell led the Runyon fund with the help of such celebrities as Marlene Dietrich, Bob Hope, Milton Berle, Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio. Since 1946, the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation has invested more than $220 million in more than 3,200 young scientists, including 11 who subsequently received Nobel Prizes.47
The moral of this story is that if Ruth and those who wished to preserve his legacy really wanted to do something “for the kids of America,” they didn't need to rely on major league baseball or the public. During Ruth's life, it's estimated that he earned over $1 million.48 Ruth always lived well and, according to reports, gambled away, lost in business, and was swindled out of about a quarter of a million dollars.49 No one should begrudge the poor boy turned celebrity his lavish lifestyle. But it's a stretch for his friends to expect others to give or do more than Ruth and they themselves did. Although the Baseball Hall of Fame files are incomplete, according to “The Babe Ruth Foundation Financial Report September 30, 1948,” the list of donors to the Ruth Foundation does not include the names of any of the foundation's directors.
That's the moral. But what are the practical takeaways?
A lot has changed in baseball since Ruth's era, especially the salaries; obviously top major league athletes make proportionally so much more today than ever before. In turn, hundreds of professional athletes have started public charities and private foundations.50 (See “Grand Slams,” p. 53.) During the last 20 years, numerous media reports have revealed that some of those boards are not as mindful of their fiduciary responsibilities as the Ruth foundation was. Indeed, The Wall Street Journal in 2007 reviewed the tax-filings for 85 private foundations established by athletes. Of those, only 35 complied with the standard guideline of devoting 75 percent of their spending to charitable programs.51
An exhaustive review in 2001 by USA Today of 248 charities and foundations established by or named for sports figures found that combined, these organizations funneled $62 million annually to charitable activities.52 But the USA Today report found 20 or so of those charities reported paying the celebrities or members of their families.53 Although this may be legal, the article raised questions about the qualifications of some of these relatives. One of the most blatant examples of an athlete's abuse of a private foundation is when the Sammy Sosa Charitable Foundation used foundation money to purchase a new sports car for Sosa's brother Jose.54
Like the directors of the Ruth foundation, many sports figures and celebrities find it difficult to comply with all of a private foundation's fundraising, legal and administrative requirements.
One alternative gaining traction among athletes today is to establish a donor-advised fund (DAF) with a public charity. DAFs require significantly less administrative, legal and accounting costs; therefore, more of the athlete's donation is available for charitable purposes.
One notable DAF supported by 60 baseball players, primarily pitchers, is the Strike Outs For Troops DAF at The Community Foundation for the National Capital Region. Originally started by San Francisco Giants pitcher Barry Zito in 2005 to raise funds for wounded troops, it has raised nearly $2 million, to date.55
Baseball has a long tradition of supporting war efforts. Ruth himself was involved during World War II in several war-related charity events. He and Ty Cobb played a few Red Cross golf exhibitions.56
Indeed, Ruth's last appearance in uniform in Yankee Stadium was before 60,000 fans in 1942 as part of an exhibition of retired baseball greats on behalf of the Army-Navy relief.57
Given that Ruth started his career as a baseball pitcher with the Boston Red Sox, no doubt he'd be pleased to know that a half a century after his death, baseball pitchers and other players are, in a cost-efficient manner, using their sports celebrity on behalf of the troops today.
Leigh Montville, The Big Bam: The Life and Times of Babe Ruth, (Doubleday, 2006, New York) p. 12. Little is known about Babe Ruth's early childhood other than that he was born in Baltimore to German-American parents; he had seven siblings, six who died in infancy. His father signed custody of him over to a Catholic orphanage and reformatory school when he was seven years old. And his mother died when he was 17. It was at St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys that Ruth learned to play baseball. Ibid. at pp. 10-11, 16, 23-25.
According to an April 30, 2009 press release issued by the National Baseball Hall of Fame “The 1919 Chicago White Sox earned the name ‘Black Sox’ after eight players were banned from baseball for life for throwing the World Series. The players, including former .400 hitter Shoeless Joe Jackson, were accused of intentionally losing the Fall Classic to the Cincinnati Reds.”
Ruth's number was finally retired in June 13, 1948, on the silver anniversary of New York's Yankee Stadium. Claire Ruth and Bill Slocum, The Babe and I, (Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1959), p. 206.
Ibid., p. 194.
Ibid., pp. 195-196.
Marshall Smelser, The Life that Ruth Built: A Biography, (Bison Books, 1993), pp. 532-533.
Babe Ruth and Bob Considine, Babe Ruth Story, (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1948), pp. 237-238.
Louis Effrat, “58,339 Acclaim Babe Ruth in Rare Tribute at Stadium,” The New York Times, April 28, 1947.
See Babe Ruth Foundation statement of income and expenses from inception to Sept. 30, 1948. Throughout the article, present day values are computed by the editors using an inflation calculator according to the Consumer Price Index. Calculations were performed on July 28, 2009 at http://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm.
See supra note 7, at pp. 242-3.
Ibid., pp. 238, 243.
Surrogate's Court: County of New York, File No. P2399/1948, Decree of Accounting dated July 28, 1954, p. 16.
Letter dated Feb. 8, 1950, from Melvyn Lowenstein to Ford Frick. All correspondence, memos and financial statements noted are from the files at the National Baseball Hall of Fame.
The Last Will and Testament of George Herman Ruth, executed Aug. 9, 1948, paragraph eight, Section B (1).
Kal Wagenheim, Babe Ruth: His Life & Legend, (Olmstead Books/LPC Group, 1974), p. 269; Robert Creamer, Babe: The Legend Comes to Life (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1992) p. 420; Ruth and Slocum, supra note 3, at p. 122.
Smelser, supra note 6, at p. 546.
Paul J. Christopher and Alicia Marie Smith, Greatest Sports Heroes of All Times: The North American Edition, (Encouragement Press, 2006), p. 169.
Aug. 3, 1948 telegram from William Harridge to Walter Mulbry, secretary-treasurer in the Baseball Commissioner's office.
The Babe Ruth Foundation press release, dated Feb. 20, 1948.
See supra, note 19.
The Babe Ruth Foundation press release, dated “July,” presumably in 1948.
“THE SCOPE, PURPOSE, AND POSSIBLE PROGRAM OF THE BABE RUTH FOUNDATION An Exploratory Report,” Shelby M. Harrison, April 6, 1948.
Hal Middlesworth, “Sportsmanship and Our Schools,” National Parent-Teacher Magazine, p. 16, September 1951 (available in the National Baseball Hall of Fame files).
Letter dated Aug. 23, 1948 from William Harridge to Forest H. Akers.
Sept. 17, 1948 teletype from Harridge to Mulbry.
Letter dated Sept. 17, 1948, from Harridge to the American League's attorney, Benjamin Fiery, of Baker, Hostetler & Patterson.
Summation of letter dated Jan. 31, 1949, from J. Paul Carey, Babe Ruth Foundation director and a co-executor of Ruth's will, to William Harridge.
Draft of a proposed letter to be sent to the American Cancer Society by the Babe Ruth Foundation. Note that the draft doesn't have a date, but there is a letter from Harridge dated Aug. 20, 1948, approving the draft proposal which had been enclosed in Lowenstein's letter dated Aug. 2, 1948. The draft is available in the National Baseball Hall of Fame's archives.
Smelser, supra note 6, at p. 546.
Ibid., p. 546.
See letter dated Oct. 8, 1948 from Harrison to Harridge.
Arthur Daley, “Sports of the Times,” The New York Times, July 11, 1949.
Louis Effrat, “Dodgers Surpass Giants and Yanks,” The New York Times, July 12, 1949.
“Babe Ruth Memorial on TV Raises Funds,” The New York Times, Aug. 17, 1951.
Smelser, supra note 6, at p. 546.
Surrogate's Court: County of New York, File No. P-2399-1948, Affidavit of Services dated April 19, 1950 by Logan Fulrath, attorney for Claire Ruth.
Pirone v. MacMillan, Incorporate, 894 F.2d 579, 581 (1990).
Jeffrey Marx, “It's a Babe-o-nanza!,” Sports Illustrated, Feb. 6, 1995.
Ruth and Slocum, supra note 3, at p. 123.
See supra note 14.
Lyn Riddle, “Shoeless Joe's Pen Is Even Mightier Than His Bat,” The New York Times, Oct. 9, 1993.
Jerry Atkins, The Ty Cobb Educational Foundation: Through Fifty Years, (Five Points Press, Athens, Ga.,) 2007, p. 33.
Ibid., p. 52.
Ibid., p. vii.
Wagenheim, supra note 15, at p. 237.
Smelser, supra note 6, at p. 546.
Mike Dodd, “Charitable Help All Over the Field,” USA Today, Sept. 20, 2001.
Bruce Knecht, “Big Players in Charity,” Wall Street Journal, May 5, 2007.
Mike Dodd, “Athletes' Charities Tend to be Small But Effective,” USA Today, July 20, 2001.
Dodd, supra note 50.
David Whitford, “Sammy Sosa's Foundation is a Major League Fiasco,” Fortune, April 17, 2000.
Ruth and Considine, supra note 7, at p. 221.
Ibid., p. 219.
Mary C. Moran is the principal of MCM Planned Giving Services in Boston
Private foundations, done right, are hard work. But some of major league baseball's recent players (like Jorge Posada, pictured right with his son, Jorge Jr.) have gotten into the game, hoping to knock it out of the park
|Player||Position||Team(s)||Foundation||Year Founded||Mission||Assets 2007||Giving 2007|
|Derek Jeter||Shortstop||New York Yankees||Turn 2 Foundation||1996||To promote healthy lifestyles among young people||$3.329 million||$1.259 million|
|Reggie Jackson||Right fielder||Oakland A's, New York Yankees, California Angels||Mr. October Foundation for Kids||1997||To bridge the digital divide and provide computers and Internet access to at-risk children, as well as establish scholarships and funding to educate underserved children||$545,913||$72,990|
|Pedro Martinez||Pitcher||Montreal Bxpos, M Boston Red Sox, New York Mets, Philadelphia Phillies||Pedro Martinez and Brothers Foundation||1998||To fund after-school programs in Boston, as well as provide relief funds to the Dominican Republic and institute a “Power in Learning” initiative in that country||$937,261||N/A|
|Jorge Posada||Catcher||New York Yankees||Jorge Posada Foundation, Inc.||2005||To provide outreach, financial and emotional support for those families with children affected with craniosynostosis||$413,226||$200,025|
|— Dawn S. Markowitz, contributing editor, Trusts & Estates|
Wells Fargo Advisors
Prepare A Solid Estate Plan With Wells Fargo Advisor's Helpful Info
Read What Convenient Pre-Purchase Customers Had to Say,& Get a Kit!
Make a Will in Minutes
Create a Last Will in 3 Easy Steps. Featured in USA Today and on CNN.